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We use language every day. We live in a world of words. Hardly any moment passes with someone talking, writing or reading. Indeed, __1__ languages is most essential to mankind. Our lives increasingly depend on fast and successful use of language. Strangely enough, we know __2__ more about things around us than on ourselves. For example, language __3__ is species specific, that is, it is language that differs human from __4__ animals. However, we do not know yet how exactly we inquire language __5__ and how it is possible for us to perceive through language; nor we __6__ understand precisely the combinations between language and thought, __7__ language and logic, or language and culture; still less, how and when language started. One reason for this inadequate knowledge of language is that we, like language users, take too many things for granted. __8__ Language comes to every normal person so naturally that a few __9__ of us stop to question what language is, much less do we feel the necessity to study it. Language is far more complex than most people have probably imagined and the necessity to study it is far greater than some people may have assured. Linguistic is a branch of science which __10__ takes language as its object of investigation.


Most people would describe water like a colorless liquid. They __1__ would know that in very cold conditions it becomes a solid called ice and that when heating on a fire it becomes a vapor called steam. __2__ However, water, they would say, is a liquid. We have learned that water consists of molecules composed with two atoms of hydrogen __3__ and one atom of oxygen, which we describe by the formula H2O. This is equally true of the solid called ice and the gas called steam. Chemically there is no difference between the gas, the liquid, and the solid, all of which is made up of molecules with the formula H2O. __4__ This is true of other chemical substances; most of them can exist as gases or as liquids or as solids. We may normally think of iron as a solid, but if we will heat it in a furnace, it will melt and become a __5__ liquid, and at very high temperatures it will become a gas. Nothing very permanent occurs when a gas changes into a liquid or a solid. Everyone knows that ice, which has been made by freezing water, can be melted again by warmed and that steam can be condensed __6__ on a cold surface to become liquid water. In fact, it is only because water is so a familiar substance that different names are used for __7__ the solid, liquid and gas. Most substances are only familiar with __8__ us in one state, because the temperatures requiring to turn them __9__ into gases are very high, or the temperatures necessary to turn them into solids are so low. Water is an exception in this respect, which is another reason why its three states have given three different names. __10__


Classic Intention Movement

In social situations, the classic Intention Movement is “the chair-grasp”. Host and guest have been talking for some time, but now the host has an appointment to keep and can get away. His urge __1__ to go is held in cheek by his desire not be rude to his guest. If he did __2__ not care of his guest?s feelings he would simply get up out of his chair __3__ and to announce his departure. This is what his body wants to do, __4__therefore his politeness glues his body to the chair and refuses to let him __5__ raise. It is at this point that he performs the chair-grasp Intention __6__ Movement. He continues to talk to the guest and listen to him, but leans forward and grasps the arms of the chair as about to push himself upwards. __7__ This is the first act he would make if he were rising. If he were not __8__ hesitating, it would only last the fraction of the second. He would lean, __9__ push, rise, and be up. But now, instead, it lasts much longer. He holds his “readiness-to-rise” post and keeps on holding it. It is as if his __10__ body had frozen at the get-ready moment.


Poverty exists because our society is an unequal one, and there are powerful political pressures to keep it that way. Any attempt to redistributing wealth and in __1__come in the United States will inevitably be opposed by powerful middle and upper class interests. People can be relatively rich only if you are relatively poor, and as __2__power is mainly in the hands of the rich, public policies reflect their interests than __3__those of the poor. As Mr. Herbert Gans has pointed out, poverty is actually functional from the point of view of the non-poor. Poverty ensures that dirty work gets doing__4__. If there were no poor poeple to scrub floors and empty bedpans,there jobs will have to be __5__ rewarded with high incomes before anyone would touch them. Poverty creates jobs for many of the non-poor, such as police officers, welfare workers, and government bureaucrats.

Poverty makes life easier for the rich by providing them with cookers __6__,gardeners, and other workers to perform. basic chores when their employers enjoy __7__ more pleasurable activities. Poverty provides a market for more inferior goods __8__and service, such as day old bread, run down automobiles, or the advice of competent __9__ physicians and lawyers. Poverty also provides a group that can be made to absorb the costs of change. It is just that poverty is an inevitable outcome of the American economic system, in which the poor are politically powerless to influence or change. __10__


“Home, sweet home” is a phrase that express an essential attitude in the United States. Whether the reality of life in the family house is sweet or no sweet, the cherished ideal of home _____1_____ has great importance for many people.

This ideal is a vital part of the American dream. This dream, dramatized in the history of nineteenth century European settlers of American West, was to find a piece of place, build a house _____2_____ for one?s family, and started a farm. These small households were _____3_____portraits of independence: the entire family- mother, father, children,even grandparents-live in a small house and working together to _____4_____support each other. Anyone understood the life-and-death importance _____5_____ of family cooperation and hard work. Although most people in theUnited States no longer live on farms, but the ideal of home ownership _____6_____ is just as strong in the twentieth century as it was in the nineteenth.

When U.S. soldiers came home before World WarⅡ, for example, _____7_____ they dreamed of buying houses and starting families. But there was _____8_____ a tremendous boom in home building. The new houses, typically inthe suburbs, were often small and more or less identical, but it satisfied _____9_____ a deep need. Many regarded the single-family house the basis of their _____10_____ way of life.



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