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公共英语等级考试四级(阅读理解)考题专项练习卷

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公共英语等级考试四级(阅读理解)考题专项练习卷,为了更好的帮助参加公共英语四级考试的同学备考,上学吧为考试推出了阅读理解考题专项练习卷,希望大家认真练习。

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1

If ambition is to be well regarded, the rewards of ambition — wealth, distinction, control over one’s destiny — must be deemed worthy of the sacrifices made on ambition’s behalf. If the tradition of ambition is to have vitality, it must be widely shared; and it especially must be highly regarded by people who are themselves admired, the educated not least among them. In an odd way, however, it is the educated who have claimed to have given up on ambition as an ideal. What is odd is that they have perhaps most benefited from ambition — if not always their own then that of their parents and grandparents. There is a heavy note of hypocrisy in this, a case of closing the barn door after the horses have escaped — with the educated themselves riding on them.

Certainly people do not seem less interested in success and its signs now than formerly. Summer homes, European travel, BMWs — the locations, place names and name brands may change, but such items do not seem less in demand today than a decade or two years ago. What has happened is that people cannot confess fully to their dreams, as easily and openly as once they could, lest they be thought pushing, acquisitive and vulgar. Instead, we are treated to fine hypocritical spectacles, which now more than ever seem in ample supply: the critic of American materialism with a Southampton summer home; the publisher of radical books who takes his meals in three-star restaurants; the journalist advocating participatory democracy in all phases of life, whose own children are enrolled in private schools. For such people and many more perhaps not so exceptional, the proper formulation is, “Succeed at all costs but avoid appearing ambitious.”

The attacks on ambition are many and come from various angles; its public defenders are few and unimpressive, where they are not extremely unattractive. As a result, the support for ambition as a healthy impulse, a quality to be admired and fixed in the mind of the young, is probably lower than it has ever been in the United States. This does not mean that ambition is at an end, that people no longer feel its stirrings and promptings, but only that, no longer openly honored, it is less openly professed.Consequences follow from this, of course, some of which are that ambition is driven underground, or made sly. Such, then, is the way things stand: on the left angry critics, on the right stupid supporters, and in the middle, as usual, the majority of earnest people trying to get on in life.

It is generally believed that ambition may be well regarded if ____.

  • A.its returns well compensate for the sacrifices
  • B.it is rewarded with money, fame and power
  • C.its goals are spiritual rather than material
  • D.it is shared by the rich and the famous
2
The last sentence of the first paragraph most probably implies that it is ____.
  • A.customary of the educated to discard ambition in words
  • B.too late to check ambition once it has been let out
  • C.dishonest to deny ambition after the fulfillment of the goal
  • D.impractical for the educated to enjoy benefits from ambition
3
Some people do not openly admit they have ambition because ____.
  • A.they think of it as immoral
  • B.their pursuits are not fame or wealth
  • C.ambition is not closely related to material benefits
  • D.they do not want to appear greedy and contemptible
4
From the last paragraph the conclusion can be drawn that ambition should be maintained ____.
  • A.secretly and vigorously
  • B.openly and enthusiastically
  • C.easily and momentarily
  • D.verbally and spiritually
5

Few creations of big technology capture the imagination like giant dams. Perhaps it is humankind’s long suffering at the mercy of flood and drought that makes the idea of forcing the waters to do our bidding so fascinating. But to be fascinated is also, sometimes, to be blind. Several giant dam projects threaten to do more harm than good.

The lesson from dams is that big is not always beautiful. It doesn’t help that building a big, powerful dam has become a symbol of achievement for nations and people striving to assert themselves. Egypt’s leadership in the Arab world was cemented by the Aswan High Dam. Turkey’s bid for First World status includes the giant Ataturk Dam.

But big dams tend not to work as intended.The Aswan Dam, for example, stopped the Nile flooding but deprived Egypt of the fertile silt that floods left — all in return for a giant reservoir of disease which is now so full of silt that it barely generates electricity.

And yet, the myth of controlling the waters persists. This week, in the heart of civilized Europe, Slovaks and Hungarians stopped just short of sending in the troops in their contention over a dam on the Danube. The huge complex will probably have all the usual problems of big dams. But Slovakia is bidding for independence from the Czechs, and now needs a dam to prove itself.

 Meanwhile, in India, the World Bank has given the go-ahead to the even more wrong-headed Narmada Dam. And the bank has done this even though its advisors say the dam will cause hardship for the powerless and environmental destruction. The benefits are for the powerful, but they are far from guaranteed.

Proper, scientific study of the impacts of dams and of the costs and benefits of controlling water can help to resolve these conflicts. Hydroelectric power and flood control and irrigation are possible without building monster dams. But when you are dealing with myths, it is hard to be either proper, or scientific.It is time that the world learned the lessons of Aswan. You don’t need a dam to be saved.

The third sentence of paragraph 1 implies that ____.

  • A.people would be happy if they shut their eyes to reality
  • B.the blind could be happier than the sighted
  • C.over-excited people tend to neglect vital things
  • D.fascination makes people lose their eyesight
6
In paragraph 5, “the powerless” probably refers to ____.
  • A.areas short of electricity
  • B.dams without power stations
  • C.poor countries around India
  • D.common people in the Narmada Dam area
7
What is the myth concerning giant dams?
  • A.They bring in more fertile soil.
  • B.They help defend the country.
  • C.They strengthen international ties.
  • D.They have universal control of the waters.
8
What the author tries to suggest may best be interpreted as ____.
  • A.“It’s no use crying over spilt milk”
  • B.“More haste, less speed”
  • C.“Look before you leap”
  • D.“He who laughs last laughs best”
9

Sustainable development is applied to just about everything from energy to clean water and economic growth, and as a result it has become difficult to question either the basic assumptions behind it or the way the concept is put to use. This is especially true in agriculture, where sustainable development is often taken as the sole measure of progress without a proper appreciation of historical and cultural perspectives.

To start with, it is important to remember that the nature of agriculture has changed markedly throughout history, and will continue to do so .medieval agriculture in northern Europe fed, clothed and sheltered a predominantly rural society with a much lower population density than it is today. It had minimal effect on biodiversity, and any pollution it caused was typically localized. In terms of energy use and the nutrients captured in the product it was relatively inefficient.

Contrast this with farming since the start of the industrial revolution. Competition from overseas led farmers to specialize and increase yields. Throughout this period food became cheaper, safe and more reliable. However, these changes have also led to habitat(栖息地)loss and to diminishing biodiversity.

What’s more, demand for animal products in developing countries is growing so fast that meeting it will require an extra 300 million tons of grain a year by 2050.yet the growth of cities and industry is reducing the amount of water available for agriculture in many regions.

All this means that agriculture in the 21stcentury will have to be very different from how it was in the 20th.thiswill require radical thinking. For example, we need to move away from the idea that traditional practices are inevitably more sustainable than new ones. We also need to abandon the notion that agriculture can be “zero impact”. The key will be to abandon the rather simple and static measures of sustainability, which centre on the need to maintain production without increasing damage.

Instead we need a more dynamic interpretation, one that looks at the pros and cons(正反两方面)of all the various way land is used. There are many different ways to measure agricultural performance besides food yield: energy use, environmental costs, water purity, carbon footprint and biodiversity. It is clear, for example, that the carbon of transporting tomatoes from Spain to the UK is less than that of producing them in the UK with additional heating and lighting. But we do not know whether lower carbon footprints will always be better for biodiversity.

What is crucial is recognizing that sustainable agriculture is not just about sustainable food production.

How do people often measure progress in agriculture?

  • A.By its productivity
  • B.By its impact on the environment
  • C.By its sustainability
  • D.By its contribution to economic growth
10
Specialisation and the effort to increase yields have resulted in________.
  • A.Localised pollution
  • B.competition from overseas
  • C.the shrinking of farmland
  • D.the decrease of biodiversity
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