2018英语专四真题及答案

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试卷简介:
2018英语专四真题及答案,2018年专业英语四级考试真题。
试题类型:
  • LANGUAGE USAGE [10 MIN]
  • CLOZE[10 MIN]
  • READING COMPREHENSION (SECTION A) [35 MIN]
  • READING COMPREHENSION (SECTION B)
试卷预览
  • LANGUAGE USAGE [10 MIN]
  • CLOZE[10 MIN]
  • READING COMPREHENSION (SECTION A) [35 MIN]
  • READING COMPREHENSION (SECTION B)
1

The Bent Pyramid outside Cairo ______ ancient Egypt ’s first attempt to build a smooth-sided pyramid.

A.has been believed to have been

B.was believed to be

C.is believed to have been

D.is believed to be

2

U.S. News ______ rankings of colleges since 1983. They are a very popular resource for students looking to apply to a university campus.

A.maintains

B.is maintaining

C.maintained

D.has been maintaining

3

He was lured into a crime he would not ______ have committed.

A.actually

B.accidentally

C.otherwise

D.seldom

4

She was once a young country wife with chickens in the backyard and a view of ______ mountains behind the apple orchard.

A.blue hazy Virginia

B.hazy blue Virginia

C.Virginia hazy blue

D.Virginia blue hazy

5

I long to alleviate ______, but I cannot.

A.the evil

B.evil

C.evils

D.an evil

6

Indeed, it is arguable that body shattering is the very point of football, as killing and maiming ______.

A.war

B.are war

C.of war

D.are of war

7

At ______, photography is a chemical process, during which a light-sensitive material is altered when exposed to light.

A.its most basic

B.its basic

C.the most basic

D.the basic

8

She hired a lawyer to investigate, only to learn that Gabriel had removed her name from the dee

A.The infinitive verb phrase “only to learn ” is used ______.

B.to express an intended purpose

C.to indicate a high degree of possibility

D.to reveal an undesirable consequence

E.to dramatize a stated fact

9

Which of the following italicized words DOES NOT carry the metaphorical meaning?

A.I wonder what ’s behind this change of plan.

B.Jim turned to speak to the person standing behind him.

C.This work should have been finished yesterday. I ’m getting terribly behind.

D.I suppose I’m lucky because my parents were behind me all the way.

10

My mother was determined to help those in need and she would have been immensely proud of what has been achieved these last 20 years. The italicized part in the sentence expresses ______.

A.a hypothesis

B.a suggestion

C.a contradiction

D.a surprise

1
A few years ago, a university professor tried a little experiment. He sent Christmas cards to a sample of perfect strangers. Although he expected some reaction, the response he received was amazing – holiday cards addressed to him came pouring back from the people who had never met nor heard of him. The great majority of those who returned a card never inquired into the identity of the ______ (31) professor. They received his holiday greeting card, and they ______ (32) sent one in return. This study shows the action of one of the most powerful of weapons of influence around us –the rule of reciprocation. The rule says that we should try to repay, in ______ (33), what another person has provided us. If a woman does us a favor, we should do her ______ (34) in return; if a man sends us a birthday present, we should remember his birthday with a gift of our own; if a ______ (35) invites us to a party, we should be sure to invite them to one of ours. By ______ (36) of the reciprocity rule, then, we are obliged to the future repayment of favors, gifts, invitations, and the like. So typical is it for ______ (37) to company the receipt of such things that a term like “much obliged ” has become a synonym for “thank you, ” not only in the English language but in others as well. The impressive aspect of the rule of reciprocation and the sense of obligation that ______ (38) with it is its pervasiveness in human culture. It is so ______ (39) that after intensive study, sociologists can report that there is no human society that does not ______ (40) to the rule.(31)______
2
(32)______
3
(33)______
4
(34)______
5
(35)______
6
(36)______
7
(37)______
8
(38)______
9
(39)______
10
(40)______
1

PASSAGE ONE 

(1) The earliest settlers came to the North American continent to establish colonies which were free from the controls that existed in European societies. They wanted to escape the controls placed on their lives by kings and governments, priests and churched, noblemen and aristocrats. The historic decisions made by those first settlers have had a profound effect on the shaping of the American character. By limiting the power of the government and the churches and eliminating a formal aristocracy, they created a climate of freedom where the emphasis was on the individual. Individual freedom is probably the most basic of all American values. By “freedom,”Americans mean the desire and the ability of all individuals to control their own destiny without outside interference from the government, a ruling noble class, the church, or any other organized authority. 

(2) There is, however, a price to be paid for this individual freedom: self-reliance. It means that Americans believe that they should stand on their own feet, achieving both financial and emotional independence from their parents as early as possible, usually by age 18 or 21. 

(3) A second important reason why immigrants have traditionally been drawn to the United States is the belief that everyone has an equal chance to enter a chance and succeed in the game. Because titles of nobility were forbidden in the Constitution, no formal class system developed in the US. 

(4) There is, however, a price to be paid for this equality of opportunity: competition. If much of life is seen as a race, then a person must run the race in order to succeed; a person must compete with others. The pressures of competition in the life of an American begin in childhood and continue until retirement from work. In fact, any group of people who does no compete successfully does not fit into the mainstream of American life as well as those who do. 

(5) A third reason why immigrants have traditionally come to the United States is to have a better life. Because of its abundant natural resources, the United States appeared to be a “land of plenty ” where millions could come to seek their fortunes. The phrase “going from rags to riches ”became a slogan for the American dream. Many people did achieve material success. Material wealth became a value to the American people, and it also became an accepted measure of social status. 

(6) Americans pay a price, however, for their material wealth: hard work. Hard work has been both necessary and rewarding for most Americans throughout their history. In some ways, material possessions are seen as evidence of people’s abilities. Barry Goldwater, a candidate for the presidency in 1964, said that most poor people are poor because they deserve to be. Most Americans would find this a harsh statement, but many might think there was some truth in it. 

(7) These basic values do not tell the whole story of the American character. Rather, they should be thought of as themes, as we continue to explore more facets of the American character and how it affects life in the United States

PASSAGE ONE Para.4 seems to suggest that _______.

A.Americans are born with a sense of competition

B.the pressure of competition begins when one starts work

C.successful competition is essential in American society

D.competition results in equality of opportunities

2

Which of the following methods does the author mainly use in explaining American values?

A.Comparison.

B.Cause and effect.

C.Definition.

D.Process analysis.

3

PASSAGE TWO

(1) The Nobels are the originals, of course. Alfred Nobel, the man who invented deadly explosives, decided to try and do something good with all the money he earned, and gave prizes to people who made progress in literature, science, economics and – perhaps most importantly –peace. 

(2) Not all awards are as noble as the Nobels. Even though most countries have a system for recognizing, honoring and rewarding people who have done something good in their countries, there are now hundreds of awards and awards ceremonies for all kinds of things. 

(3) The Oscars are probably the most famous, a time for the (mostly) American film industry to tell itself how good it is, an annual opportunity for big stars to give each other awards and make tearful speeches. As well as that there are also the Golden Globes, apparently for the same thing. 

(4) But it ’s not only films – now there are also Grammies, Brits, the Mercury Prize and the MTV and Q awards for music. In Britain, a writer who wins the Booker prize can expect to see their difficult, literary novel hit the bestseller lists and compete with “The Da Vinci Code ” for popularity. The Turner Prize is an award for a British contemporary artist – each year it causes controversy by apparently giving lots of money to artists who do things like displaying their beds, put animals in glass cases or – this year – build a garden shed. 

(5) Awards don ’t only exist for the arts. There are now awards for Sports Personality of the Year, for European Footballer of the year and World Footballer of the Year. This seems very strange – sometimes awards can be good to give recognition to people who deserve it, or to help people who don ’t make a lot of money carry on their work without worrying about finances, but professional soccer players these days certainly aren’t short of cash! 

(6) Many small towns and communities all over the world also have their own awards ceremonies, for local writers or artists, or just for people who have graduated from high school or got a university degree. Even the British Council has its own awards for “Innovation in English Language Teaching ”. 

(7) Why have all these awards and ceremonies appeared recently? Shakespeare never won a prize, nor did Leonardo da Vinci or Adam Smith or Charles Dickens. 

(8) It would be possible to say, however, that in the past, scientists and artists could win “patronage” from rich people – a king or a lord would give the artist or scientist money to have them paint their palaces or help them develop new ways of making money. With the change in 

social systems across the world, this no longer happens. Scientific research is now either funded by the government or by private companies. 

(9) Perhaps awards ceremonies are just the most recent face of this process. 

(10) However, there is more to it than that. When a film wins an Oscar, many more people will go and see it, or buy the DVD. When a writer wins the Nobel prize, many more people buy their books. When a group wins the MTV awards, the ceremony is seen by hundreds of thousands of people across the world. The result? The group sells slots more records. 

(11) Most awards ceremonies are now sponsored by big organizations or companies. This means that it is not only the person who wins the award who benefits – but also the sponsors. The MTV awards, for example, are great for publicizing not only music, but also MTV itself! 

(12) On the surface, it seems to be a “win-win ” situation, with everyone being happy, but let me ask you a question – how far do you think that publicity and marketing are winning here, and how much genuine recognition of achievement is taking place?

What is the author ’s tone when he mentions awards such as the Oscars, the Golden Globes and Grammies (Paras.3 & 4)?

A.Amused.

B.Appreciative.

C.Sarcastic.

D.Serious.

4

According to Para.4, what would happen to award winning writers?

A.They would enjoy a much larger readership.

B.They would turn to popular novel writing.

C.They would continue non-fiction writing.

D.They would try controversial forms of art.

5

Which of the following statements best sums up Para.6?

A.Awards ceremonies are held for local people.

B.Awards ceremonies are held on important occasions.

C.Awards ceremonies are held in certain professions.

D.Awards ceremonies are held of all sorts of reasons.

6

According to Para.8, one difference between scientists and artists in the past and those at present lies in _______.

A.nature of work

B.personal contact

C.source of funding

D.social status

7

It can be concluded from Para.12 that the author thinks awards _______.

A.promote market rather than achievements

B.do good to both market and popularity

C.help those who are really talented

D.are effective in making people popular

8

PASSAGE THREE

(1) Knowing that Mrs. Mallard was suffering from a heart trouble, great care was taken to break to her as gently as possible the news of her husband’s death. 

(2) It was her sister Josephine who told her, in broken sentence. Her husband’s friend Richards was there, too, near her. It was he who had been in the newspaper office when news of the railroad disaster was received, with Brently Mallard ’s name leading the list of “killed. ” He had only taken the time to assure himself of its truth by a second telegram. 

(3) She wept at once, in her sister ’s arms. When the storm of grief had spent itself she went away to her room alone. She would have no one follow her. 

(4) There stood, facing the open window, a comfortable armchair. Into this she sank, pressed down by a physical exhaustion that haunted her body and seemed to reach into her soul. 

(5) She could see in the open square before her house the tops of trees. The delicious breath of rain was in the air. In the street below a peddler was crying his wares. The notes of a distant song which some one was singing reached her faintly, and countless sparrows were twittering in the eaves. 

(6) There were patches of blue sky showing here and there through the clouds that had met and piled one above the other in the west facing her window. 

(7) She sat with her head thrown back upon the cushion of the chair, quite motionless, except when a sob came up into her throat and shook her, as a child who has cried itself to sleep continues to sob in its dreams. 

(8) She was young, with a fair, calm face, whose lines bespoke repression and even a certain strength. But now there was a dull stare in her eyes, whose gaze was fixed out there on one of those patches of blue sky. It was not a glance of reflection, but rather indicated a suspension of intelligent thought. 

(9) There was something coming to her and she was waiting for it, fearfully. What was it? She did not know; it was too subtle and elusive to name. But she felt it, creeping out of the sky, reaching toward her through the sounds, the scents, the color that filled the air. 

(10) Now her bosom rose and fell tumultuously. She was beginning to recognize this thing that was approaching to possess her, and she was striving to beat it back with her will –as powerless as her two white slender hands would have been. 

(11) When she abandoned herself a little whispered word escaped her slightly parted lips. She said it over and over under her breath: “free, free, free! ” The vacant stare and the look of terror that had followed it went from her eyes. They stayed keen and bright. Her pulses beat fast, and the coursing blood warmed and relaxed every inch of her body. 

(12) She knew that she would weep again when she saw the kind, tender hands folded in death; the face, fixed and gray and dead. But she saw beyond that bitter moment a long procession of years to come that would belong to her absolutely. And she opened and spread her arms out to them in welcome. 

(13) There would be no one to live for during those coming years; she would live for herself. There would be no powerful will bending hers in that blind persistence with which men and women believe they have a right to impose a private will upon a fellow-creature. 

(14) And yet she had loved him – sometimes. Often she had not. What did it matter! What could love, the unsolved mystery, count for in face of this possession of self-assertion which she suddenly recognized as the strongest impulse of her being! 

(15) “Free! Body and soul free! ” she kept whispering. 

(16) Josephine was kneeling before the closed door with her lips to the keyhole, imploring for admission. “Louise, open the door! I beg; open the door – you will make yourself ill. What are you doing, Louise? For heaven ’s sake open the door.”

(17) “Go away. I am not making myself ill. ” No; she was drinking in a very elixir (长生不老药) of life through that open window. 

(18) Her fancy was running riot along those days ahead of her. Spring days, and summer days, and all sorts of days that would be her own. She breathed a quick prayer that life might be long. It was only yesterday she had thought with a shudder that life might be long. 

(19) She arose at length and opened the door. There was a feverish triumph in her eyes, and she carried herself unwittingly like a goddess of Victory. She clasped her sister’s waist, and together they descended the stairs. Richards stood waiting for them at the bottom. 

(20) Some one was opening the front door with a latchkey. It was Brently Mallard who entered, a little travel-stained, composedly carrying his bag and umbrella. He had been far from the scene of the accident, and did not even know there had been one. He stood amazed at Josephine’s piercing cry; at Richards ’ quick motion to screen him from the view of his wife. 

(21) But Richards was too late. 

(22) When the doctors came they said she had died of heart disease – of the joy that kills.

How did Mrs Mallard get the news of her husband ’s death?

A.Her husband’s friend told her.

B.She had read it from the paper.

C.Her sister Josephine told her.

D.Her doctor broke the news to her.

9

When Mrs Mallard was alone in her room, she _______.

A.sat in an armchair all the time

B.sat with her back facing the window

C.sat and then walked around for a while

D.sat in a chair and cried all the time

10

How did she feel about her love towards her husband?

A.She hated her husband.

B.She was indifferent now.

C.She found it hard to describe.

D.She had loved him all along.