SECTION A MINI-LECTURE
Directions: In this section you sill hear a mini-lecture. You will hear the lecture ONCE ONLY. While listening, take notes on the important points. Your notes will not be marked, but you will need them to complete a gap-filling task after the mini-lecture. When the lecture is over, you will be given two minutes to check your notes, and another ten minutes to complete the gap-filling task on ANSWER SHEET ONE. Use the blank sheet for note-taking.
听力原文： Paralinguistic Features of Language
Good morning, everyone! Today we'll continue our discussion on describing language. Last week we examined such features of language as grammar, vocabulary, the sounds of language, etc. In this lecture, we'll look at another important aspect of language. Perhaps some of you may wonder what is this important aspect of language. Let me tell you. It refers to features of communication that takes place without the use of grammar or vocabulary. They are called " paralinguistic features of language". These features fall into two broad categories; those that involve the voice and those that involve the body.
Now, the first category, is what we call vocal paralinguistic features. Vocal features are actually tones of voice. While they are, perhaps, not central to meaning in communication in the same way as grammar or vocabulary, they may, nevertheless, convey attitude or intention in some way. (Q1) Let me give you some examples. The first is whispering, which indicates the need for secrecy. The second is breathiness. This is to show deep emotion. The third is huskiness, which is to show unimportance. (Q2) The fourth is nasality, this, um, is to indicate anxiety. The last is extra lip-rounding, which expresses greater intimacy, especially with babies, for example. So we can see that there are a number of ways of altering our tone of voice. And when we do this consciously, we do it to create different effects in communication.
Now, let's come to the second category, physical paralinguistic features, which involve the body. In addition to conveying meanings with tone of voice, we can also express our intention through the ways in which we use our bodies. You may ask what are the ways, then? Let me cite some brief examples. The expression on our face, the gestures we make and even proximity or way we sit, are some of the ways we send powerful messages about how we feel, or what we mean. Let me explain some of these in more detail. First, facial expression. Facial expression is a powerful conveyer of meaning. We all know smiling is an almost universal signal of pleasure or welcome. (Q3) But there are other facial expressions that may not be so common. For instance, raising eye-brows suggests that you are surprised or interested in something. Other facial actions, such as biting your lip, which indicates that you are deep in thinking, or are uncertain about something; compressing the lips, which shows that you are making decisions; and a visible clenching of the teeth, to show that you are angry , are all powerful conveyers of meaning, too. (Q4)
The second in this category is gesture. You see, we use gesture to indicate a wide range of meanings, though I have to emphasize that the actual gestures we use may be specific to particular cultures. That is to say different cultures have their own favorite gestures in conveying meaning. Here, a few examples may show you how powerful gestures can be. In British English behavior, shrugging shoulders may indicate an attitude of " I don't care" or " I don't know". (Q5) Crossing your arms may indicate relaxation. But it can also powerfully show you are bored. Waving can mean welcome and farewell. While scratching your head may indicate that you are at a loss. In other cultures, placing your hand upon your heart is to indicate that you are telling the truth. (Q6) Pointing