SECTION A MINI-LECTURE
Directions: In this section you sill hear a mini-lecture. You will hear the lecture ONCE ONLY. While listening, take notes on the important points. Your notes will not be marked, but you will need them to complete a gap-filling task after the mini-lecture. When the lecture is over, you will be given two minutes to check your notes, and another ten minutes to complete the gap-filling task on ANSWER SHEET ONE. Use the blank sheet for note-taking.
听力原文： Writing Experimental Reports
Good morning, everyone,
Today we'll discuss some preliminaries concerning how to write experimental reports. When you first signed up for a course in university like a psychology course, chances are that you didn't really expect what was coming in your study, particularly the course emphasizes on methodology and statistics. For a few of you this may have come as a pleasant surprise, provided that you have already known something about the course. For most, however, I dare say, it will undoubtedly have been a shock to the system. No doubt in other parts of your course study, you will read books and journals, examining critically models and theories, assumptions and hypothesis put forward by scholars and specialists.
My task today is to help you understand some of the important features of experimental reports, because you will have to write up some kind of report of this nature if your course gives prominence to practical work, especially experimenting.
Then, what is an experimental report? All a report is...really...is the place in which you tell the story of your study; like what you did, why you did it, what you found out in the process, and so on. In doing this you are more like an ancient storyteller, whose stories were structured in accordance with widely recognized and long-established conventions, than a modern novelist who is free to dictate form. as well as content. Moreover, like the storyteller of old, although you will invariably be telling your story to someone who knows quite a bit about it already, you are expected to present it, as if it had never been heard before. This means that you will need to spell out the details and assume little knowledge of the area on the part of your audience.
Then perhaps you may ask: what is the nature of the conventions governing the report. A clue I think can be found in this basic structure. A highly-structured and disciplined report is written in sections and the sections by and large follow an established sequence. What this means is that, in the telling, your story is to be cut up into chunks: different parts of the story are to appear in different places in the report. What you did and why you did it appear in the section called "introduction". How you did it is in "the method" section and what you found out is in "the result" section. And finally what you think it shows appear in "the discussion" part. As you can see, the report, therefore, is a formal document composed of series of sections in which specific information is expected to appear.
We will discuss the precise conventions governing each section as we go along. For example, what are the subsections in "the method". But today I will introduce to you certain general rules straightaway. The first of these concerns the person to whom you should address your report, whom I shall call your reader. A very common mistake, especially early on, is to assume that your reader is the person who will be marking the report. In reality, however, the marker will be assessing your report on behalf of someone else, an idealized, hypothetical person who is intelligent, but unknowledgeable about your study and the area in which it took place. Your marker will, therefore, be checking to see that you have written your report with this sort of reader in mind. So you nee