SECTION A MINI-LECTURE
Directions: In this section you sill hear a mini-lecture. You will hear the lecture ONCE ONLY. While listening, take notes on the important points. Your notes will not be marked, but you will need them to complete a gap-filling task after the mini-lecture. When the lecture is over, you will be given two minutes to check your notes, and another ten minutes to complete the gap-filling task on ANSWER SHEET ONE. Use the blank sheet for note-taking.
听力原文： Classifications of Cultures
Good morning everyone. Today we'll look at culture, or rather, classifications of cultures. Usually when we deal with different people we deal with them as if we were all members of the same culture. However, it's possible that people from different cultures have different assumptions about the world. Regarding such important and basic ideas of time, personal space and this is the view of Edward Hall. And Edward Hall is an anthropologist who spent a large part of his life studying American Indians, their culture, their language, but he was different from a lot of other anthropologists who just study one culture. He was interested in the relations between cultures, how cultures interact. What Hall believed is that cultures can be classified by placing them on a continuum, ranging from what he called "high-context" to "low-context".
Okay, what is a high-context culture? A high-context culture is a culture in which the context of the message, or the action, or an event carries a large part of its meaning and significance. (1)What this means is that in a high-context culture more attention is paid to what's happening in and around the message than to the message itself. (2)Now, let me give you examples. First, in terms of personal space, generally speaking in a high context culture, because there's greater dependency on group thinking, people lean toward heavier sensory involvement or closeness to people and they have less respect for privacy, for personal space. (3) If you go into that culture people might stand closer when they're talking to you, they might touch more and if they're jostled in a crowd they won't feel violated. And also, people from a high-context culture pay attention to body language, (4)because remember what I said, the definition of a high-context culture is that more attention is paid to the context of the message than to the message itself, and part of the context is body language. Second, in terms of time, people in high-context cultures are considered to have what is called a polychronic attitude toward time. Here "poly" means multiple and "chronic" means time. What this means is that they believe people, things, events, have their own time and there can't be a standard system of time for everything. (5) What this leads them to believe is that you can't emphasize punctuality; things happen when they're supposed to happen. So there's a different attitude toward time. There's no set standard of time. You can't control time. Everything has its own sense of time. So it's a culture that pays little attention to time, to clock time.
Now, let's move on to low-context culture. A low-context culture is just the opposite. A low-context culture is one in which the message, the event, or the action is of separate entity, having meaning unto itself, regardless of the surroundings or the context. (6)The message, the event, the action have meaning in itself. So what this means in a low-context culture is that people pay more attention to the event itself, rather than to the context which surrounds the event or the message. For example, in terms of personal space again, there's more emphasis on individuality, so the concept of privacy is very, very important, whereas before as I said in high-context culture they might not even be concerned with privacy or personal space. But, in a low-context culture, the